Differentiation between "races" may not be as today, yet I think more or less it should be there, but may be more fluid and open, may be more based on culture and allegiance. During Roman empire, people of different races could become Romans by citizenship and culture. Even its emperors, especially Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire, were from different races. Tang dynasty was the golden age of Chinese civilization and at the same time "cosmopolitan". I ever read, forget where, that Tang emperors had some Turkic blood, not sure how true.Ah-bin wrote:I think it was when the European notion version nation-states arrived in SEA that all the trouble started, and people began to talk in terms of different races and being bumiputera and so on.
In Siam there were anti-Chinese incidents also, around the beginning of Chakri dynasty (itself had some Teochew blood), not sure if this was due to European influence or "natively" grown.
Some Indonesians prefer to be under Dutch, may be they enjoyed certain priviledges. Majority obviously do not. All bad things about colonialism aside, without Dutch there would be no Indonesia, but kingdoms of Mataram Java, Pajajaran Sunda, Aceh, Banjar, Bone, and many more. Without British colonialism, there would be no Singapore or Malaysia but Johor, Melaka, Pahang etc, and Brunei would have been still much bigger.
Yes, Wahhabism indeed is plaguing the Islamic world. US troops were too busy guarding oil wells while Sumerian/Babylonian artefacts in Iraqi museums were looted... so hardly a surprise that US is so close to oil-rich Saudis.amhoanna wrote:Interesting observations on the changes in Riau. I read a book (can't remember the title or author) describing how a certain kind of Wahhabi Islam is sweeping through the Islamic world b/c of the power of the Saudis, and the Saudis have so much power b/c of their US ties. So no dangdut on Sumatra, huh?
Late Gus Dur (Abdulrahman Wahid) was a rare and unique Islamic leader. He was very tolerant, taking care of minorities such as Chinese (he said his ancestral surname was Tan) and other religions. He often criticized radical Muslims. He dared to tell jokes about Islam on national tv, and even visited Israel. Some Muslims accused him of being a Zionist. If Islamic leaders are like him, the image of Islam will be much better. Alas, currently the prevailing interpretation of Islam is unlike his.
Not sure about Sumatra, but dangdut was not popular in Riau.
I see. So they came later than Teochews? Was Bânlâm area over-populated while arable land was scarse?Absolutely. My impression (from the literature) is that most of the Hoklo families trace their bloodlines back to Ciangciu at a time-depth of 300-350 years. Seems like Bânlâm was a horrible place to live back then.
Some original Min people were transported (during Han dynasty?) to somewhere around Shanghai, right?There were also imperial edicts that uprooted coastal villages and moved everybody xx li inland so they wouldn't (A) get attacked by pirates OR (B) work together with the pirates. A typical "Mandarin" way to solve a "wet" problem. I think this is why so much of the coastal countryside became settled by 閩 speakers: b/c they went sailing around anyway, and they came across all this deserted countryside...