Abbreviations and symbols


Symbols and abbreviations

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Symbol Explanation
Symbols placed in front of meaning valid for a whole section
[Mandarin] used in Mandarin
[Hakka] used in Hakka
[Cantonese] used in Cantonese
[Guangdong] used in Guangdong (Yue) languages
[Wu] used in Wu
[Korean] used in Korean
[Japanese] used in Japanese
Symbols used in pronunciation fields
{su4} character has separate reading with another meaning, listed separately
/su4/ reading either unknown, not verified, or not confirmed in more than 4 dictionaries
(su4) speech pronunciation
Symbols referring to the character entry
abbr abbreviation
adj adjective
adv adverb
al abusive language
ap also pronounced
art article
asp aspect
arch archaism
aux auxiliary
aux v auxiliary verb
Cf. compare
cl classifier, measure word
classic classical Chinese
col colloquialism
conj conjunction
cp colloquial pronunciation
def art definite article
der derogatory
e.g. for example
exp expletive
fem female, feminine
fig figurative
fml formal
fp final particle
fw foreign word
gen genitive
gram grammatical, grammar
idm idiomatic (construction, expression)
itj interjection
indef art indefinite article
joc jocular
lit literally
mas male, masculine
n noun
neg negative (in a negative sentence, or with negative verb)
neg v negative verb (when used with)
nom nominative
obj objective
obs obsolete term
ono onomatopoeia
p particle
pl plural
pn partitive noun
pol polite language
pos possessive
pp past particle
ppr present particle
pref prefix
prep preposition
pron pronoun
pt past tense
sg singular
sl slang
suf suffix
v verb
v.i. intransitive verb transitive verb
vulg vulgar expression or word
? perhaps, possibly, uncertain


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